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Forgings for Pressure Vessels: Common Welding Methods for Flange Forgings for Pressure Vessels

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Forgings for Pressure Vessels: Common Welding Methods for Flange Forgings for Pressure Vessels

Forgings for pressure vessels: pressure vessel flange forgings are widely used in petrochemical, pharmaceutical, energy and power, ships, aerospace and other fields. Various pressure vessels, power boilers, nuclear reactor devices, aerospace vehicles and other equipment and components in production equipment are inseparable from welding and manufacturing. With the continuous development of my country's national economy, pressure vessel welding technology has made rapid progress, has been widely used, and plays an increasingly important role in industrial production.

Forgings for pressure vessels: like other industries in the national economy, petrochemical enterprises are always advancing and developing with the alternation of old and new and metabolism. It is necessary to continuously improve the overall technical quality of employees, and cultivate a large number of professional and technical personnel who understand technology and integrate theory with practice. The book "Practical Handbook of Pressure Vessel Welding" describes in detail the welding methods, welding materials, welding and heat treatment of various materials for pressure vessels. The content is easy to understand and closely related to the actual production. This paper introduces the typical welding structures commonly used in petrochemical pressure vessels and the welding fabrication of typical equipment (such as spherical storage tanks, hot-wall hydrogenation reactors, stainless steel clad steel equipment, etc.). ) was introduced in detail, which is worthy of learning and reference for professionals engaged in petrochemical pressure vessel design and technical management and technical personnel from other relevant departments.

At present, the large-scale and high-tech production facilities in the refining and chemical industry, as well as the inferior quality of refining and processing raw materials, have put forward more and more stringent requirements for the pressure vessels and process equipment in the petrochemical industry. The welding technology of contemporary pressure vessels must deal with and properly solve the practical technical problems caused by the above factors. The publication of Wang's "Practical Manual for Welding of Pressure Vessels" will help improve the professional and technical quality of employees, solve welding problems encountered in design and production practice, and ensure the excellent welding quality of pressure vessels, thereby contributing to the realization and protection of petrochemical enterprises and other The safe, stable and long-term operation of production devices and equipment in related industries has played a beneficial role.

Forgings for pressure vessels: Welding of stable pressure vessels is an important link in the manufacture, installation, use and maintenance of pressure vessels. Excellent welding quality is the key to ensuring equipment safety and long-term operation. In petrochemical, fertilizer, chemical fiber and other fields as well as metallurgy, medicine, shipbuilding, nuclear power, military and other important sectors of the national economy. Welding problems under general production conditions and special operating conditions emerge in an endless stream, which requires professional engineers and technicians to have basic knowledge of welding, correctly and reasonably select and solve many problems such as equipment materials, welding materials, welding and heat treatment processes.

Metal welding is a connection method that connects two metal objects of the same or different kinds through atoms (molecules) by appropriate means (heating, pressure or simultaneous heating and pressure). It is one of the important processing technologies in the manufacturing of various products. Welding can not only solve the connection of various steels, but also the connection of non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and copper and special metal materials such as titanium and zirconium, as well as their connection with steel. Widely used in petrochemical, machinery manufacturing and other industries and departments. In production, the welding method is mainly selected and determined according to the structure, material and production technical conditions of the required welding product, and considering the requirements of the product, according to the characteristics and application scope of various welding methods. There are many kinds of welding methods, and there are many kinds of welding classification methods, generally including the family system method and the coordinate method. Forgings for pressure vessels

The family method divides the welding methods into several categories according to some main characteristics of the welding process, and then divides them into several sub-categories according to the characteristics of the welding process in each category to form a family system. This classification method is mostly used in engineering and production, as shown in Figure 1-1.

The advantages of the family method welding classification are: because it is classified according to the characteristics of the welding process, the classification level can be more or less, flexible and changeable, and the primary and secondary relationship is clear. Disadvantages: There is no consistent classification principle among the three categories in the table, and the classification principles of the major categories and their subordinates are inconsistent. For example, in the major categories, fusion welding is based on whether the metal is melted and crystallized during the welding process, solid phase welding is based on whether the solid phase is combined, whether or not pressure is applied, and brazing is based on solder as the main division, so some Welding methods such as spot welding, flash welding, fusion pressure welding, etc. Different classifications will be made for different emphasis features. At the same time, the cross-border classification is limited due to the limitations between the upper, lower, and secondary classifications, making some welding methods (such as diffusion brazing, thermal spraying, etc.) unclassified. Forgings for pressure vessels

Forgings for pressure vessels: According to the coordinate method, there are two welding methods for flange forgings of pressure vessels: one-dimensional coordinate method and two-dimensional coordinate method. The former is purely based on the external characteristics of the welding process as the classification standard, that is, a table is listed with the two characteristics of the welding process as the abscissa and ordinate, and then various welding methods are listed in a table according to their two characteristics. Coordinate location (see Appendix A "Table A-1"). The advantage of this classification method is that some characteristics of a welding method can be directly known according to the welding classification, and a welding method can also be classified to a certain position in the table according to these two characteristics, so it has strong adaptability and many New welding methods that have appeared later can be classified into a certain position in the table according to the corresponding characteristics. The disadvantage is that the two fixed characteristics (heat source and protection method) are unified into the classification standard of all welding methods, which may not accurately reflect the main characteristics of a specific welding method; more importantly, it cannot reflect the essential characteristics. (such as solid-phase bonding or liquid-phase bonding, etc.). ) the next two metals combine. Forgings for pressure vessels

The binary coordinate method combines the advantages of the first two classification methods. It takes the welding process feature as a class (element), and lists its primary and secondary features hierarchically on the abscissa, similar to the family method. At the same time, the characteristics of the physical metallurgical process in the welding process are regarded as the second category (elements), and their primary and secondary characteristics are listed hierarchically on the ordinate. This classification method selects two key features of welding process and welding metallurgy process as coordinate parameters, which can achieve a more scientific classification purpose, clearly understand the essence of various welding methods, and provide directions for the development of new welding methods. See Appendix A "Table A-2" for binary coordinate classification. The classification of pressure vessel welding basically adopts the family method, and the first category is fusion welding. Welding can be subdivided into arc welding, gas welding, aluminothermic welding, electroslag welding, arc welding, laser welding, etc. Among them, arc welding (including electrode arc welding, submerged arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, plasma arc welding and gas welding) and gas welding are the welding methods commonly used in the manufacture and repair of pressure vessels.

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